Distrofia de Cones

What is Cone Dystrophy?

Cone Dystrophy is the name given to a wide range of eye conditions. These eye conditions are all linked by a problem with the cone photoreceptors. The photoreceptors either do not work from the day a child is born (stationary) or else slowly stop working during childhood (progressive). This usually leads to blurred vision, poor colour vision and a dislike for bright light (photophobia). Dystrophy is a word for a disease, which a child is born with. Some of these conditions do not only affect the eye but may also affect the rest of a child’s body.

What are the causes of Cone Dystrophies?

There are many different causes of Cone Dystrophies. Sometimes nobody can say for sure why a child has a Cone Dystrophy. When no cause can be identified this is called Idiopathic.
There are many reasons why children may develop Cone Dystrophy
Most Cone Dystrophies are caused by a mistake in the child’s genes. Genes are a chemical alphabet stored in the body. Genes contain the body’s “built-in” plan to make sure all the parts of the body work correctly. If a gene has a mistake in the chemical alphabet then a part of the body may not work correctly. Sometimes many parts of the body do not work correctly. A child with a Cone Dystrophy has often been passed (inherited) a gene with a mistake in it from one or both parents. Sometimes by chance a new mistake occurs in the child’s genes and the parent’s genes are normal. There are many different ways a child can ‘inherit’ a condition. See the VI Scotland Information Document on ‘Ways Children Can Inherit Eye Conditions’.

There are two main types of Cone Dystrophy

In a child with Cone Dystrophy the photoreceptors either do not work from the day a child is born (stationary) or else slowly stop working during childhood (progressive). In Stationary Cone Dystrophies the condition tends to remain the same for all of a child’s life. In Progressive Cone Dystrophies the condition may become worse as the child gets older.

How is the diagnosis made?

Young children with Cone Dystrophy may develop:
Fast ‘to and fro’ movements of the eyes called Nystagmus. See the VI Scotland Information Document on Nystagmus
‘Roving’ eye movements where the eyes appear to slowly wander around not fixing and staying still on any objects.
Blurred vision, that is worse in bright light and better in dim light.
Children may dislike bright light and try to avoid daylight and well-lit rooms. This is known as photophobia.
Parents will often notice these signs. Sometimes parents also notice (by the way their child acts) that their child’s vision is reduced. If they discuss their concerns with their Family Doctor an assessment can be arranged.
An eye doctor can check the way the eyes behave to bright lights. If the pupils of a child move slowly to a bright light then Cone Dystrophy is more likely. Using a special instrument the eye doctor can look at the optic nerve and retina at the back of the eye. In children with Cone Dystrophy sometimes these parts of the eye look different from normal. Often the central bit of the retina (the macula) can appear to have circular bands of different shades of pink and orange. Eye doctors often describe this appearance as ‘Bull’s Eye Maculopathy’.

There are also special tests that can be done to help the eye doctor decide what is wrong. These tests measure signals from the eyes when a child is shown a bright light. Sticky patches are placed around the eyes. The sticky patches are attached to wires that lead to a machine. The machine records the electrical signals made by the eyes. The record of the signals will help the doctors decide what the matter is. A Cone Dystrophy is more likely if the signals are weak or absent. This test is called an Electroretinogram (ERG).
Sometimes it is not only vision that is affected
Some dystrophies of photoreceptors may present initially with symptoms that have nothing to do with vision. Conditions such as Batten’s Disease may present with increasing difficulty handling objects, increasing clumsiness moving around, gradual change in mood and personality, decreased attention span, slurred speech and poor memory. It may be only later that a problem with vision is noticed.

How do Cone Dystrophies affect the way a child sees?

Cone Dystrophies can affect different children in different ways. Most young children who are born with a stationary cone dystrophy feel their vision to be ‘normal’. At first they assume that everyone else has vision the same as their own, as they have never known anything else but their own visual world. They do not realise that other people see things differently.
Children with progressive cone dystrophies will however slowly notice problems with their vision and eyes. These include:

Blurred vision, especially in the central bit of vision
Dislike of bright light (photophobia)
Poor colour vision
Fast ‘to and fro’ movements of the eyes (nystagmus)

Most children with cone dystrophy can still see well in the outside bit of vision, away from the centre. They usually have no problem getting around although reading, recognising faces and seeing small toys can be difficult.
Is there any treatment for Cone Dystrophy?
There is no good way to stop the sight loss in Cone Dystrophy. But many things can be done to help children with the condition.

What can be done to help?

We use our vision to get around, learn new things and to meet other people and make friends.
It is important that children are encouraged to wear their spectacles. This will help the child see more clearly and reduce glare and photophobia. It will also help the vision parts of the brain to grow and develop correctly.
Most children with Cone Dystrophy have few problems getting around. The way they act can give the impression that their vision is normal. It is important however to be aware of their own special problems with vision.
It is worth watching carefully to find out what the smallest toys are that a child can see and play with. Then try to only play with toys that are the same size or bigger.

Recognising facial expressions can often be difficult. It is worth trying to find out at what distance facial expressions can be seen and responded to. Then always try to talk and smile from within this distance. This helps a child to learn what facial expressions mean and to copy them.
Many children with Cone Dystrophy need early and specialist care from the local visual impairment support team. Even if a child has very poor vision many useful and practical things can be done to help. See the ‘Advice’ section on the VI Scotland website.